Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir

 Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir

 1.Introduction To Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir.

A. Overview Of Jammu And Kashmir :- Jammu And Kashmir Is A Region Located In The Northernmost Part Of India And Is Also Known For Its Stunning Natural Beauty And Rich Cultural Heritage. The Region Is Situated In The Himalayan Mountain Range And Is Known For Its Scenic Landscapes, Pristine Lakes And Snow-capped Peaks.
B. Importance Of Flora And Fauna In Jammu And Kashmir :- The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir Are Unique And Play A Crucial Role In Maintaining The Delicate Balance Of The Region’s Ecosystem. The Region Is Home To A Variety Of Species That Are Found Nowhere Else In The World Making It An Important Center Of The Biodiversity. The Conservation Of These Species Is Crucial For The Preservation Of The Natural Beauty And Biodiversity Of Jammu And Kashmir.

2. Flora Of Jammu And Kashmir

A. Dominant Vegetation :- The Flora Of Jammu And Kashmir Is Dominated By Alpine, Temperate And Subtropical Vegetation. The Region Has A Rich Diversity Of Plant Species Including Trees, Shrubs And Herbaceous Plants.
(i). Alpine Vegetation :- Alpine Vegetation In Jammu And Kashmir Is Usually Found On Higher Regions ( between 3600 m – 4000 m) Of Mountains And Are Called Margs Or Alpine Pastures. As They Are On Higher Altitudes The Temperature Is Extremely Cold There. Grasses Grow Usually In Summer Between (May-Sep) When Ice Melts.
Alpine Vegetation In Jammu And Kashmir
Alpine Vegetation In Jammu And Kashmir

(ii). Temperate Vegetation :- Temperate Vegetation Or Temperate Forests Of Jammu And Kashmir Are Found In Greater Himalayas, Zanskar, Karakoram And Slopes Of Pir Panjal At 1500-3000 m Altitudes. Deodar, Pine, Silver Fir, Cedar And Hazel Are The Dominant Species.

Temperate Vegetation In Jammu And Kashmir
Temperate Vegetation In Jammu And Kashmir

(iii). Subtropical Vegetation :- Subtropical Vegetation In Jammu And Kashmir Belong To Lower Slopes Of The Middle Himalayas And Are Confined To Siwaliks Hills Containing Thick Growth Of Bushes And Scrubs. Species Include Teak, Sal, Shisham And Pipal. They Shed Their Leaves Before Hot Weather i.e. In Jan-Feb.

Subtropical Vegetation In Jammu And Kashmir
Subtropical Vegetation In Jammu And Kashmir
B. Tree Species :- The Region Is Home To A Variety Of Tree Species Such As Deodar, Pine And Cypress. These Trees Provide Habitat For A Number Of Animal Species And Play An Important Role In Maintaining The Region’s Ecosystem.
(i). Deodar Tree :- Derived From A Sanskrit Term “ Devadaru” Which Means “ Woods Of The Gods”.
  1. Scientific / Botanical Name :- Cedrus Deodara.
  2. Height :- 40-50 m.
  3. Leaves :- Needle Type 2-3 cm Long.
  4. Wood :- Durability, Rot – Resistant Character and Fine.
Deodar Tree Images
Deodar Tree Images
(ii).Pine Tree :-  Found At Pir Panjal Range.It Is A Evergreen Tree.
  1. Himalayan Blue Pine Is Known As Kaayur Or Yaari- Kul In Kashmiri.
  2. Height :- 150 feet.
  3. Leaves :- Winged.
  4. Wood :- Used In Ornaments, Doors, Windows, Frames And Furniture In The Kashmir Valley.
Pine Tree Images
Pine Tree Images

(iii). Cypress Tree :- Also Known As Sarva Kul Or The Bhutan Cypress Or Kashmir cypress.

  1. Scientific / Botanical Name :- Cupressus Cashmeriana.
  2. Height :- 50-60 feet.
  3. Leaves :- Needle Like.
Cypress Tree Images
Cypress Tree Images
C. Shrubs, Herbaceous Plants And Alpine Meadows :- There Are Also A Number Of Alpine Meadows, Shrubs And Herbaceous Plants Found In Jammu And Kashmir Such As The Himalayan Blue Poppy, Himalayan Primrose, Himalayan Bell-flower, And Himalayan Forget-me-not.
(i).Himalayan Blue Poppy :-  Also Called Queen Of Himalayan Flowers.
  1. Scientific / Botanical Name :- Meconopsis Betonicifolia.
  2. Family :- Papaveraceae.
  3. Characteristics :- Short-Lived, silky, cup-shaped, clear blue flowers,3-4 inch wide (8-10 cm),with contrasting golden stamens and a short ivory-white style.
Himalayan Blue Poppy
Himalayan Blue Poppy

(ii).Himalayan Primrose :- Commonly Known As The Round-Headed Himalayan Primrose Or Asiatic Primrose.

  1. Scientific / Botanical Name :- Primula Rosea / Primula Capitata.
  2. Family :- Primulaceae.
  3. Characteristics :- Pale Green, Toothed Leaves, Pendent, Fragrant, White Or Yellow.
Himalayan Primrose
Himalayan Primrose

(iii).Himalayan Bell-flower :- Also Known As The Large Campanula And The Wide-Leaved Bellflower.

  1. Scientific / Botanical Name :- Campanula Latifolia.
  2. Family :- Campanulaceae.
  3. Characteristics :- Dainty Perennials With Wide-Open Blue-Bell Tubes.
Himalayan Bell Flower
Himalayan Bell Flower

 

(iv). Himalayan Forget-me-not :- Small Blue Flowe With A Yellow Eye.
  1. Scientific / Botanical Name :- Myosotis Alpestris.
  2. Family :- Boraginaceae.
  3. Characteristics :- Its A Small Flower Usually A Few Millimetres Across.
Himalayan Forget Me Not
Himalayan Forget Me Not

 

3. Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir

A. Mammals :- The Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir Is Equally Diverse And Unique. The Region Is Home To A Variety Of Mammals Like The Himalayan Black Bear, Snow Leopard, And Musk Deer. These Mammals Play An Important Role In The Region’s Food Chain And Help To Maintain The Delicate Balance Of The Ecosystem.
(i).Himalayan Black Bear :- Sub-Species Of The Asian Black Bear Found In Himalayas.
  1. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  2. Phylum :- Chordata.
  3. Class :- Mammalia.
  4. Order :- Carnivora.
  5. Family :- Ursidae.
Himalayan Black Bear
Himalayan Black Bear

(ii).Snow Leopard :- Also known as “Ounce”. Has Whitish, Grey, Black Spots On Head And Neck, Bushy Tail, Belly Is Whitish, Weighs Between 22 And 55 kg.

  1. Scientific Name :- Panthera Uncia Or Uncia.
  2. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  3. Phylum :- Chordata.
  4. Class :- Mammalia.
  5. Order :- Carnivora.
  6. Family :- Felidae.
snow leopard in kashmir
Snow Leopard In Kashmir

(iii).Kashmir Musk Deer :- Kashmir Musk Deer Is An Endangered Species of Musk Deer. Commonly Found In Kishtwar National Park – Limber Wildlife Sanctuary. Hunted For Their Scented Glands, Which Are Commonly Used In Perfumes.

  1. Scientific Name :- Moschus cupreus.
  2. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  3. Phylum :- Chordata.
  4. Class :- Mammalia.
  5. Order :- Artiodactyla.
  6. Family :- Moschidae.
Kashmir Musk Deer
Kashmir Musk Deer
B. Avian Fauna :- The Avian Fauna Of The Region Is Also Very Rich, With A Variety Of Species Like The Himalayan Monal, Snow-cock, And The Lammergeier. These Birds Are Important Indicators Of The Health Of The Region’s Ecosystem And Play A Crucial Role In Maintaining Its Biodiversity.
(i).Himalayan Monal :- Also Called Impeyan Monal And Impeyan Pheasant.
  1.  Scientific Name :- Lophophorus Impejanus.
  2. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  3. Phylum :- Chordata.
  4. Class :- Aves.
  5. Order :- Galliformes.
  6. Family :- Phasianidae.
Himalayan Monal
Himalayan Monal

(ii).Himalayan Snow-cock :- A Hulking Game Bird Of Rocky Mountain Slopes And Cliffsides.

  1. Scientific Name :- Tetraogallus Himalayensis.
  2. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  3. Phylum :- Chordata.
  4. Class :- Aves.
  5. Order :- Galliformes.
  6. Family :- Phasianidae.
Himalayan Snow Cock
Himalayan Snow Cock

(iii).The Lammergeier :- The Bearded Vulture Also Known As The Lammergeier And Ossifrage.

  1. Scientific Name :- Gypaetus Barbatus.
  2. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  3. Phylum :- Chordata.
  4. Class :- Aves.
  5. Order :- Accipitriformes.
  6. Family :- Accipitridae.
The Lammergeier
The Lammergeier
C. Fish Species :- The Rivers And Lakes In The Region Are Also Home To A Variety Of Fish Species, Including The Golden Mahseer And The Himalayan Snow Trout. These Fish Play An Important Role In The Region’s Food Chain And Help To Maintain The Delicate Balance Of The Ecosystem.
(i).Golden Mahseer :- The Putitor Mahseer, Himalayan Mahseer Or Golden Mahseer is an Endangered Species Of Cyprinid Fish.
  1. Scientific Name :- Tor Putitora.
  2. Family :- Cyprinidae.
  3. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  4. Order :- Cypriniformes.
  5. Phylum :- Chordata.
Golden Mahseer
Golden Mahseer

(ii).Himalayan Snow Trout :- Cold Water Fish Species Found In Himalayan Rivers Are At Risk Of Habitat Loss Due To The Warming Of The Himalayan Region.

  1. Scientific Name :- Schizothorax Richardsonii.
  2. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  3. Phylum :- Chordata.
  4. Class :- Actinopterygii.
  5. Order :- Cypriniformes.
  6. Family :- Cyprinidae.
Himalayan Snow Trout
Himalayan Snow Trout

4. Unique Species Of Jammu And Kashmir.

A. Hangul / The Kashmir Stag:- One Of The Most Unique And Important Species Of Flora And Fauna Found In Jammu And Kashmir Is The Hangul, Which Is A Type Of Red Deer Native To The Region. This Species Is Considered To Be One Of The Rarest And Most Endangered Deer Species In The World. The Hangul Is Found In The Dense Forests Of The Dachigam National Park, Which Is Located In The Kashmir Valley.
  1. Scientific Name :- Cervus Elaphus Hanglu.
  2. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  3. Phylum :- Chordata.
  4. Order :- Artiodactyla.
  5. Family :- Cervidae.
Hangul Kashmir Stag
Hangul Kashmir Stag
B. Himalayan Blue Sheep / Bharal:- Another Important Species Found In Jammu And Kashmir Is The Himalayan Blue Sheep, Also Known As Bharal. This Species Is Found In The High Altitude Regions And Is An Important Prey Species For Predators Like The Snow Leopard. The Himalayan Blue Sheep Is Also An Important Part Of The Region’s Ecosystem As It Helps To Maintain The Balance Of The Plant And Animal Populations In Its Habitat.
  1. Scientific Name :- Pseudois Nayaur.
  2. Kingdom :- Animalia.
  3. Phylum :- Chordata.
  4. Class :- Mammalia.
  5. Order :- Artiodactyla.
  6. Family :- Bovidae.
Bharal Himalayan Blue Sheep Bharal
Bharal Himalayan Blue Sheep Bharal

 

5. Ecosystems Of Jammu And Kashmir.

A. Alpine Ecosystems :- The Alpine Ecosystems Of Jammu And Kashmir Are Characterized By High Altitudes, Cold Temperatures, And Low Atmospheric Pressure. These Ecosystems Are Home To A Variety Of Plant And Animal Species That Have Adapted To These Harsh Conditions, Making Them Unique And Important Habitats For Biodiversity.
B. Temperate And Subtropical Ecosystems :- The Temperate And Subtropical Ecosystems Of Jammu And Kashmir Are Characterized As Moderate Temperatures, Higher Atmospheric Pressure And Abundant Rainfall. These Ecosystems Are Home To A Variety Of Plant And Animal Species That Have Adapted To These Conditions Making Them Important Habitats For Biodiversity.

6. Threats To The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir.

A. Human Activities :- The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir Are Threatened By Various Human Activities Such As Deforestation, Urbanization, And Overgrazing. These Activities Have A Direct Impact On The Region’s Ecosystem And Can Lead To The Loss Of Important Habitats And The Decline Of Certain Species.
B. Climate Change :- Climate Change Is Also Having A Significant Impact On The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir. Changes In Temperature And Precipitation Patterns Can Alter The Composition And Distribution Of Plant And Animal Species In The Region, Leading To The Decline Of Certain Species And The Loss Of Biodiversity.
C. Poaching And Illegal Wildlife Trade :- Poaching And Illegal Wildlife Trade Are Also Major Threats To The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir. Species Like The Hangul And Musk Deer Are Highly Valued For Their Meat, Hides, And Other Body Parts, Making Them Vulnerable To Illegal Hunting And Trade.
D. Need For Conservation Measures :- The Conservation Of The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir Is Crucial For The Preservation Of The Region’s Unique Biodiversity And For The Maintenance Of Its Delicate Ecosystems. Conservation Measures Are Needed To Protect These Species From Threats And To Ensure Their Continued Survival In The Region.

7. Conservation Efforts In Jammu And Kashmir.

A. Protected Areas :- To Protect The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir, Various Protected Areas Have Been Established In The Region. These Protected Areas Include National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, And Biosphere Reserves, Which Provide Important Habitats For A Variety Of Species.
B. Awareness Programs And Community Involvement :- Awareness Programs And Community Involvement Are Also Important Components Of Conservation Efforts In Jammu And Kashmir. These Programs Aim To Educate The Local Communities About The Importance Of Conservation And To Involve Them In The Protection Of The Region’s Flora And Fauna.
C. Monitoring And Research Activities :- Monitoring And Research Activities Are Also Essential For The Conservation Of The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir. These Activities Help To Better Understand The Populations, Habitats, And Behaviors Of Various Species, Allowing For More Effective Conservation  Measures To Be Implemented.
D. Role Of Government And Non-government Organizations :- The Government And Non-government Organizations Also Play An Important Role In The Conservation Of The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir. These Organizations Provide Funding, Technical Expertise, And Other Resources To Support Conservation Efforts In The Region.

8. Future Prospects.

A. Importance Of Continued Conservation Efforts :- The Continued Conservation Of The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir Is Crucial For The Preservation Of The Region’s Unique Biodiversity And For The Maintenance Of Its Delicate Ecosystems. Conservation Efforts must Continue In Order To Protect The Region’s Species From Threats And Ensure Their Survival In The Future.

B. Potential For Eco-tourism :- The Rich Diversity Of Flora And Fauna In Jammu And Kashmir Also Has The Potential To Drive Eco-tourism In The Region. By Promoting Sustainable Tourism Practices And Increasing Public Awareness About The Importance Of Conservation, Jammu And Kashmir Could Become A Hub For Wildlife Tourism And Eco-tourism.

C. Role Of Education :- Education Plays A Crucial Role In The Conservation Of The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir. By Educating The Next Generation About The Importance Of Conservation And The Unique Biodiversity Of The Region, We Can Ensure That The Conservation Efforts Of Today Will Continue Into The Future.

9. Conclusion In The End.

The Flora And Fauna Of Jammu And Kashmir Are An Important Part Of The Region’s Biodiversity And Play A Critical Role In Maintaining The Balance Of Its Ecosystems. It Is Crucial That We Take Measures To Protect These Species From Threats And Ensure Their Continued Survival In The Region. Through Conservation Efforts, Community Involvement, And Education We Can Work To Preserve The Unique Biodiversity Of Jammu And Kashmir For Future Generations.

 

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